Networking Concepts Index

Networking Concept

Networking Concept

History of communication over distances greater than human voice, hand signals, fire beacons, smoke signals, flags, messengers on horseback, on foot, mechanical semaphores, telegraph, – can be traced to the basic milestones that were discovered thousands years ago. Charles Morrison (1753), Lomond, Nicholas (German), Morse (Morse code, Italy), Charles Whetstone (Electric Telegraph in 1837), Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1888, German), Guglielmo Marconi (Italy), Lee de Forest (invented first amplifying vacuum tube called Audion or Triod in...

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Transmission Media

Transmission Media

Some medium of communications are as follows: Twisted Pair Co-axial Cables Optical Fibers Microwaves Artificial Satellite Infrared Bluetooth   # Twisted Pair cable   It is oldest, but very common medium of transmission. It is made from two 1mm thick isolated copper wires twisted to each other like as DNA model. It is used for either analog or digital transmission. It has high error rate beyond 100m. Information is conveyed by the difference in voltage between two wires. If the signal voltage applied to one wire is V1 volts and the...

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Network Topology

Network Topology

The pattern of combination of computers for transferring data is called network topology. It is a physical layout of the network’s computers, terminals, and links. These are Star, Ring, Bus, Mesh and Hybrid topology.     (a) Star Topology:   All the nodes are connected to server or master computer. The master computer controls all the local work stations or computers (nodes). The failure of nodes is detected easily. Host computer controls communication between any two computers. Local computers are not attached directly to...

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