Introduction to operating system





Operating System:

An operating system is a collection of system programs that control computer and any other peripherals connected to it. The program that hides the truth about the hardware from the programmer and present and a nice simple view a named file that can be read & written as “operating system”. Operating system shields the programmer from the interface, the abstraction offers by the operating system is slower & easier to use than the underlying hardware.
Operating system is collection of software which is close to hardware. We can view operating system as a resource – hardware and software collector.
The main functions of operating system are
1. Implementing using interface
2. Sharing hardware among number of users.
3. Allow user to share data
4. Protecting user from each other
5. Control the execution of programs

We can call operating system as resource allocator. A computer has many resource hardware and software’s, CPU, main memory I/O devices etc. The operating system acts as manager of these resources. Operating system is the control program. A control program manages the execution of user program to prevent error and improve use of computer. The storage device used to store operating system are expressed In bytes.

8 bits=1 bytes
1024 bytes=1 kilobyte
1024 kilobyte=1 megabyte
1024 megabyte = 1 GB

So. To store particular operating system, it must be satisfied the minimum requirement of memory.

Operating System as extended machine or virtual machine:
generally, computer users sit in front of computer consisting of monitor, keyboard, mouse and system unit & use parts of computer system. E.g., I/O device, system unit, memory etc. The computer system is design so that use of resource to maximize the user is performing. In this case the operating system is designed mostly for easy with  same attention paid for performance, the performance is important to the user but it does not  matter it most of the system is sitting idle, waiting for the slow i/o speed of the user. The operating system is design to maximize resource utilization.
The program that hides the truth about the hardware from the programmer and present and a nice simple view a named file that can be read & written as “operating system”. Operating system shields the programmer from the interface, the abstraction offers by the operating system is slower & easier to use than the underlying hardware.
The main function of operating system is to present the user with the equivalent of an extended machine or virtual machine that is easier to program than underlying hardware.

operating system as resource manager:
Operating system is collection of software which is close to hardware. We can view operating system as a resource – hardware and software collector. A system has many hardware and software that may b required to solve the problem, cpu time, memory space, file storage space,   i/o device etc. the operating system acts as manager of these resources.
Modern computer consists of process, memories, times, disks, network, printer and wide varieties of other devices. The tab of the operating system is to provide for an orderly and controlled allocation of the process, memories and I/O devices among the various programs completing for them.
An operating system is a control program, a control program manages the execution of user program to prevent errors and improve use of computer. It is especially concerned with the operation and control of I/O devices. When a computer has multiple users the operating system manages and protects the memory I/O devices. The operating system keeps in trace that who is using which resource to grant resource required amount for usage and to mediate conflicting required different programs and users.



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