Internet





The Internet grew out of work done at the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the 1960s. The first director of DARPA, J.C.R. Licklider, wrote of a Galactic Network in which global interconnections would allow everyone to access data and programs quickly from any place on the network. Another part of his vision was the creation of communities that shared common interests across these connections. He installed the importance of this networking concept in his successors at DARPA, Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, and MIT researcher Lawrence Roberts.

Leonard Kleinrock at MIT published the first paper on packet switching theory in July 1961 and the first book on the subject in 1964. Kleinrock convinced Roberts of DARPA of the theoretical feasibility of communications using packets rather than circuits- a major step toward the development of computer networking. Another key step was to enable computers to communicate with each other. In 1965, Roberts, working with Thomas Merrill, connected the TX-2 computer in Massachusetts to the Q-32 in California with a low speed, dial-up telephone line, creating one of the earliest wide-area computer networks (WAN). The results of this experiment verified that computers could work well together and confirmed Kleinrock’s conviction that packet switching was correct approach.

The ARPAnet, the Internet’s predecessor, was lunched in September 1969 when Bolt Beranek and Neumann (BEN), the firm hired to construct the critical Interface Message Processor (IMP), installed the first IMP at UCLA, USA to connect the first host computer. Doug Engelbart’s project at Stanford research Institute on Augmentation of Human Intellect (which included NLS, an hypertext system), provided an second node. By the end of 1969, there were four nodes on the APRAnet, and the Internet had been born.

Computers continued to be added to the APRnet, and the network was demonstrated to the public at the 1972 International Conference on Computer and Communication in Washington, D.C. In 1972, the first electronic mail application was introduced, and the first remote hosts were connected via satellite by the end of 1973.

A collection of interconnected networks is called Internet. It is a linking of computers to computers sharing the TCP/IP protocols. The Internet is the transport vehicle for the information stored in files or documents on another computer. It is a network of networks and started by U.S. defense Department in late 1960s. It is also called Information Superhighway or Cyberspace. The cyberspace is a vast sea of people, programs, products, photos and many things. It is a way of trade, education, entertainment, income and communication.

 

Difference between WWW and Internet:

 

Sn

WWW

Internet

1.

It stands for World Wide Web. It is a huge collection of text, graphics, audio, videos etc.

The internet is a collection of interconnected networks. The internet is a collection of many World Wide Webs.

2.

It is a set of protocol that allows us to access any documents on the net through a naming system based URL.

The internet facility is provided by ISP (Internet Service Provider). It has large server to collect WWW of organizations. We pay our share to our ISP.

 

1. Application of Internet

 

A worldwide network of computer and people is called network. It is also called information super highway or cyberspace. The e-mail, Information, Program loading and updating, Entertainment, online shopping, discussion group, book publishing, research work, library.

Application

  • E-mail: The process of exchange of mail through Internet is called e-mail. It is a very fast mode of message transfer from one point to other point globally.
  • Information: The information about share market, price hike, political events, vacancy, natural disasters and request for help can be accessed in one mouse click.
  • Programs: Many type of program can be downloaded through Internet. Many free shareware, demo, trial versions of programs are available for user. We can load down application software, compilers and many other programs paying registration fee. We can send our program for trial or sale through Internet.
  • Entertainment: The facility of multimedia has enhanced popularity of computer and Internet. We can download music, videos, electronic books, and newspapers of our interest. Many sites provide free access and for some sites we have to pay.
  • Discussion Group: A group of people of similar interest is called discussion group. The topics of interest may be film, environment, health, politics, music, photography, science fiction, mythology etc. People ask questions from each other and discuss.
  • Online shopping: We can order goods and service without leaving desk is called online shopping. We order our interest and our interest is delivered at doorsteps is a revolutionary progress of information technology.
  • Education: Internet is helpful for students also. There are many University of the world has own sites to provide information about admission, faculty, fee and mode of examination. The Open University conduct classes online and study materials related with different fields are also available on web sites. Now a day the trend of online examination is also become very popular. We can get professional qualifications through online education and examinations.

 

2. Internet in business

 

The internet is widely used in business sectors. The internet in business is called commerce or e-business.

  • Advertisement: To advertise products through own web sites. Many business organizations, institutions, universities have own website to advertise products and other information.
  • Customer service: The orders are taken through internet and manual, up-gradation and other post sale activities are controlled through Internet.
  • Training: The business organizations arrange training through Internet hiring expert from other countries or other parts of countries.
  • E-mail and e-fax: Facilities are also allowed through Internet.
  • Education: The Internet is a medium of online education. The students, teachers, research scholars can obtain study materials through Internet. Many universities have own website to deliver norms of admission, course, fee and other facilities.
  •  Entertainment: The Internet is most challenging media for Entertainment. We can access music, films, puzzles, cartoons, e-books, and many other resources of entertainment.

 

3. Web Browser

 

A web browser is a program or an application, which provides user interface for accessing the WWW, Lynx, the first Web browser, supported only text, and then came Mosaic, which enabled the simple pointing and clicking, developed by Eric Bina and Marc Andressen at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. The internet Explorer and Netscape Communicators are well known web browsers. Macweb, opera etc are also web browser. The web browser supports many plugins to display graphics, audio, movies and other web stuffs. Some plugins is available without cost, and some have license agreement and charge. ActiveX, Window Media Player, real time, Quick Time plugin, Shockwave, Flash, Acrobat reader etc are available and free plugins.

Many software companies are in the market with their well-equipped web browser, but Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape communicators have Lion’s share in browser market. Some other browsers are Mozilla Firefox, Opera etc.

(i) MS-IE: It is lunched in 1995 by Microsoft. It is a very popular browser of world and 75% internet users use it daily.

(ii) Netscape: It is introduced in 1994. It was very popular in beginning, but gradually it lost popularity when MS-IE is started to grasp major market from 1998.

(iii) Mozilla: It is recent and popular browser developed on the background of Netscape. It has 20% users in the world market.

(iv) Firefox: It is newer than Mozilla, and expected to cover large market in future.

(v) Opera: It is a small and fast browser suitable for small applicants like as mobile phone, hand-held computers etc. It is a Norwegian Internet browser.

 

4. Who pay for Internet Service?

 

Internet is a network of networks. No one pay for Internet and also all pay for his or her part through ISP.

  • ISOC (Internet Society): This is a voluntary membership organization to promote global information interchange through Internet established in January 1992.
  • IAB (Internet Architecture Board): Appointed by ISCO for technical management. It has 10 members. New chairman of IETE is appointed by IAB.
  • IRTF (Internet Research Task Force): Responsible for long term research in the field of Internet.
  • IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force): It is also responsible for short term engineering issue and technical management.

 

5. Who provide free Information for Internet?

 

Free Information for Internet is provided from:

  • Government: The information about annual budgets, political affairs, changes in cabinets etc are provided by Government.
  • College and University: The college or University journals, faculty, admission, fee, facilities to students, hostels, examination and vacancy for teaching or non-teaching staffs are provided without cost.
  • Companies: The information about new products, vacancy, annual budgets, bonus etc. Some software companies provide demo or trial version software loading facility freely.
  • Individuals: Information about personal interest, music, story, study materials, advertisements etc are provided without any fee.

 

 

7. URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

 

URL is a protocol to access web sites located globally through Internet. The numeric address, called the IP (Internet Protocol) address is the actual the real URL. The IP address is written in number separated by periods.

Example: 160.36.28.37

People generally can remember names better than numbers. So, it is convenient to associate a name with such IP address. The URL is translated into numeric address (IP address) using the Domain Name System (DNS). The DNS is a worldwide system of weavers that stores location pointers to web sites.

The URL has three parts and spaces are not allowed in it.

Uniform Resource Locator

Uniform Resource Locator


(a) Protocol: It is a first part written before separator: / /. The http is the name of protocol stands for hypertext text transfer protocols. It is also called service name also. The “gopher://”,” ftp://” , “news:” are some service name.

(b) Domain or host name: It is written after separators: / /. WWW is used to tell server that computer is working as web server. WWW is the host computer name. Other part of domain is separated by period (.).

Example:

Yahoo is a domain or host name of URL.

(c) Path or request: It is used with “/”. It contains subdirectory and file names. Category and country are also written with domain name.

 

7. Search Engine

 

A search engine is a collection of a program used to match user request with available database of information. Some other program used to search web are spider, crawlers, worms, or knowbots (Knowledge Robots). Google is a very popular search engine, most of us use it.

When you have to search about Free Java Tutorials, type it in dialog box and press enter. The list of Free Java Tutorials links is displayed.

 

8. Gopher and Telnet

 

(a) Gopher: Gopher is a client/ server system that is used to search, retrieve, and display documents from remote sites on Internet. It can handle any types of data such as text, programs, pictures, sounds etc. It is a menu driven program, easy to use and search information. It is developed at the University of Minnesota in 1991.

Gopher space: It is a system of gopher servers connected to Internet. There is hundreds of Gophers servers around the world.

(b) Telnet: It is a program to log into computers on the Internet and use online database, library catalog, chat service, and more. It is available on the World Wide Web (W3). A telnet program must be installed on your computer and configured to your web browser in order to work.

 

 

9. Intranet

 

Intranet is a small and private of a company or organizations connected with Internet and dedicated to provide security. The communication between Intranet and global internet is highly restricted to protect confidential information of organization. The authorized persons can access Intranet within organization, and other person outside the organization cannot access it.

 

10. SMS

 

  • It stands for Short Massaging Service.
  • It is a combined form of email and telephony.
  • We can send message from one point of country through mobile to other part of country or continents. If you have to send message out of country boundary, country code must be dialed.
  • The message should not be more than 160 words. The pictures, graphs etc are not sent through SMS. It is cheaper than telephone only sending charges are implemented, but not receiving charges.
  • The short form of words used in SMS are

asl: age, sex, location

brb: be right back

bbl: be back later

btw: by the way

np: no problem

LoL: laughing out loud

gtg: got to go

wb: Welcome back

 

 

11. MMS

 

It stands for Multimedia Messaging Service. It is a modified version of SMS and originally developed within the 3GPP (Third -Generation Partnership Program). It is a way to send message from one mobile to another. SMS supports only text, but it supports text, color, graphics, sound, animation, and videos. An MMS message is a single entity, not a collection of attachments. One of the main practical differences between MMS and SMS is that whilst SMS messages are limited to 160 bytes, an MMS message has no size limit and could be many Kbytes in size, or even larger. MMS requires a third generation (3G) network to enable such large messages to be delivered, although smaller messages can be sent even with second generation networks using GPRS. We can attend birthday, marriage anniversary, business meetings, function without going there through MMS. Now a day, mobile phone with mobile camera became boon for MMS.

It supports following formats:

  • Text with different fonts, and colors.
  • Images designed in IPEG, and GIF format.
  • Audio of MP3 and MIDI format.
  • Video(MPEG)

Example:

(a) NOKIA has provided MMS facilities directly into latest telephone.

(b) Sony Ericsson has designed EMS (Enhanced Messaging Service) which supports some features of MMS.

 

How you get MMS service?

  • You have a need of MMS enable phone for MMS.
  • Activate your MMS service sending SMS to service provider.
  • Configure MMS setting on your phone.

 

 

12. HTML

 

(a) HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. This language was first time invented by computer scientist of Britain, Tim Berners Lee in 1980.

(b) It is a tag-based language. A tag attributes are always written within < and >.

(c) It is also known as scripting language. It is interpreted by Web browser in information. The information may be text, pictures, graphics, interface, music, animations, videos etc.

(d) It supports Java Script, VB Script, and Pearl etc.

Example:

<HTML>

<HEAD> <TITLE> ————–</TITLE></HEAD>

<BODY>

————–

</BODY>

</HTML>

 

13. Some Technical terms

 

  • ISP: It stands for Internet Service Provider. It is a company or organization to provide Internet Connection.
  • Packet: The small pieces of information is called packet. It travels through Internet from source to destination.
  • TCP/IP: It stands for Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol to provide communication facilities to different types of network to Internet.
  • WWW (World Wide Web): A vast collection of information, graphics, multimedia, user friendly system on the internet is called WWW. It is also called subset of Internet. It is a set of protocol that allows us to access any documents on the net through a naming system based on URL.

The World Wide Web has taken birth at CERN, European Center for Nuclear Research, in March 1989 by skillful hand of physicist Tim Berners-Lee. A vast collection of information, graphics, and user-friendly systems on the Internet is called World Wide Web or WWW or W3. It is also called subset of Internet. The Internet and web site has killed the distance and concept of global village is visualized in practical sense. Marshall MacLuhan gives the term global village first time. It is a collection of web pages. The web pages contain pictures, graphics, sound and music, animation and videos, electronic books and much other information. The Internet is a medium for networking and World Wide Web is a platform or point to access Internet facilities through web browser. The WWW is a set of protocols that allow us to access any documents on the net through a naming system based on URLs (Uniform Resource Locator).

 

 

14. Cyber law

 

The cyber law is a rules and regulation related with political and legal issue of Internet and communication technology including intellectual property, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction.

The data hacking is more profitable than robbing the banks. The cyber law is a global law to regulate and control internet discipline.

There are many issue related with Internet:

(i) Some destructive person design virus and distribute through Internet to destroy valuable data related with banking system, defenses system, and others.

(ii) Drawing money from others accounts

(iii) Software piracy

(iv) Distribution of blue films, rape scenes, and other materials for social issues.

(v) Relay news against society, country, and religions

(v) Piracy of doctorial papers, research works, and many other valuable things against to copy right rules.

Sn.

Types

Percent’s

1.

Child Pornography

35%

2.

Fraud (scams0

33%

3.

e-mail abuse

12%

4.

Missing Children

9%

5.

Stalking, Copyright Violations, Harassment / Threats, Children (Abused), Hacking / Virus, Others

11%

 

To many, it is surprising that breaking into computer system composes substantially less than ten percent of all computer crimes reported. For most of the commonly reported crimes (child pornography, e-mail abuse, etc.), it is clear how they are carried out. But, systems are “cracked” (broken into) using many different techniques. Some of these offensive techniques include: packet sniffers, password crackers, worms, Trojan horses, spoofing mechanisms, ping, and diagnostic tools like traceroute, to name a few.

The cybercrime is a worldwide problem. Its elimination is necessary for safer data communication and from one part to other part of the worlds. With regards to fighting crime the major fronts are legislative and technical. The aims of these measures are two-fold: punish those who commit crimes and to prevent the crimes that might occur. On the legislative side, Congress is currently adopting measures to make more aggressive prosecution against computer criminals, and expand the scope of law enforcement. There are some acts and its sections to control cybercrime. In 1996, US, Congress passed Telecommunication Act to cover esthetical issues related with TV forecaster, satellite broadcaster and wireless telephony. There are many acts like as Communication Decent Act, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Uniform computer Information transaction Act etc.

Technically, software exists to detect unauthorized entry, and awareness is being spread to fight computer crime. Security issues involving cryptography have spread their scope to international proportions. Of course, denying criminal’s protals of entry remains the strongest protection, to this regard a section cover these measures.

Cyber law encompasses laws relating to:

(i) Electronic and Digital Signatures

(ii) Computer Crime

(iii) Intellectual Property

(iv) Data Protection and Privacy

(V) Telecommunications Laws

 

15. Contemporary Technology

 

The World Wide Web is the universe of Network-accessible information, and the embodiment of human knowledge. The real-time communication is a modern trend of internet. Text, audio and video communication are burning example of real-time communication. These capabilities allow people to conference and collaborate in real time. In general, the faster the Internet connection, the more successful is the experience.

Some contemporary technologies are:

(a) Real-time communication: Microsoft’s NetMeeting and Netscape’s Conference (available with communicator) are programs, which allows for true real-time collaboration.

Some features of collaboration tools are:

  • Audio: It conducts telephone conversation on the web.
  • Video: It allows view the audience or partners of other side.
  • File Transfer: It is also a challenging feature of Internet. All types of text, graphics, audio, videos can be sent back and forth on the web.
  • Chat: Chat program allow users on the Internet to communicate with each other by typing in real time. IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is a service through which participants can communicate to each other on hundreds of channel. To access IRC, you must use IRC software Program.
  • Whiteboard: It allows drawing, marking up, and save graphics on a shared window or board.
  • Document/ Application sharing: Web allows view and use a program on another’s desktop machine.
  • Collaborative Web browsing: It allows many users to visit web pages together.

(b) Push: The automatic display of Information without request of user is called Push technology. In beginning, this technology was applied for commercial purpose to advertise products or display information, but now a day, it automatically updates software and performs troubleshooting also. When you open sites, automatic information without your response is displayed through a channel.

(C) RSS: It stands for Rich Site Summary or Really Simple Syndication. RSS contents may be read by using a RSS Reader. This is software that posts new Items and store old ones in a graphical Interface. It is a similar to e-mail software.

(d) Blogs: It is used to share through with the world. The word blog comes from Weblog because a blog consists of a signed and dated log of individual posting. Blogging is an interactive activity. Readers can add commands to a blogger’s posting, other can respond, and conservation ensures. Blogger can use RSS to distribute their posting.



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