Integrated Circuit (IC)
The integrated circuit is a subject of micro-electronics in which very small components are designed for several purposes. The integrated chip is also studied and designed under micro-electronics. An integrated circuit is one in which circuit components such as transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors etc. are automatically part of a small semi-conductor chip.
Advantages of Integrated Circuit:
(a) Increased reliability due to lesser number of connections amongst components.
(b)Extremely small in size, lesser weight, low power consumption, lesser cost
The Integrated Circuit (IC) is invented by different persons of two different organizations by Jack St Clair Kilby of Texas Instrument and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor. Jack Kilby was born on November 8, 1923 in Jefferson City, Missouri. He has obtained degree in electrical engineering in 1947 from University of Illinois and master degree from University of Wisconsin in 1950.
He had joined Texas Instrument in 1958 where he had invented Integrated circuit or microchip. Before joining the TI, he had employed in Central lab Division of Globe Union Inc in Milwaukee as a designer of ceramic base screen circuit boards.
The nickname of Bob Noyce was “Mayor of Silicon Valley”. He was born on December 27, 1927 in Burlington, Iowa in the house of preacher. He has obtained BA degree I physics from Grinnell College in 1949 and Ph.D from MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in 1953. He was a cofounder of Fairchild Semiconductor where he had invented integrated chip. He established Intel in 1968 where, Ted Hoff had invented first microprocessor.
Both the scientists had changed not only technology available that times, but every fields of science and technology. The invention of IC chip had changed communication system, weaponry, data processing technique, space shuttle, satellites, medicine and other machine controlled industrial units. The typical chips are rectangular or square shaped with size of 1 cm2 or smaller, and contain millions of interconnected elements.
There are many types of IC available in market. some of them are listed below:
- SSI: SSI (Small-Scaled Integration) refers to lCs with fewer than 100 electronic elements on small chip.
- MSI: Medium-Scaled Integration (MSI) represents 100 to 3,000 components on the chip.
- LSI: LSI (Large Scaled Integration) refers to more than 3,000 components on single chips.
- VLSI: VLSI (Very Large-Scaled Integration) contains more than 100,000 to 1,000,000 electronic components on the single chip.
- ULSI: ULSI stands for Ultra Large Scale Integration which contains 1 million transistors. However there is no qualitative leap between VLSI and ULSI, hence normally in technical texts the “VLSI” term covers ULSI as well, and “ULSI” is reserved only for cases when it is necessary to emphasize the chip complexity, e.g., in marketing.
- WSI: WSI is a Wafer-Scale Integration designed by Gene Amdahl.
- SOC: In SOC (System on Chip), approach, components traditionally manufactured as separate chips to be wired together on a printed circuit board, are designed to occupy a single chip that contains memory, microprocessor(s), peripheral interface, Input/ Output logic control, data converters, etc., i.e., the whole electronic system.
A typical microcomputer has its microprocessor memory, I / O circuit or VLSI chips. Microprocessor is a single VLSI chip attached with mother board of CPU. Generally, it is square shaped with many connectors like as legs of centipedes (a type of insects).