Generation of Computers





First Generation of computer:

Features of first generation computer:

-          Very Large

-          Low Memory

-          More Power Consumption

-          Thermionic value

-          Slow

-          Machine Language for Coding

-          Hard to maintain

The size of computer is very huge, more power consumption, not very fast and reliable. The vacuum Tubes are used as CPU component. The first Vacuum tube (Thermionic Value) invented by Lee De Forest. Magnetic tape and Magnetic drum were secondary storage. Von Newman’s Architecture principles are widely used in this generation.

Examples: EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer), EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), ACE (Automatic Computer Engine), UNIVAC (Universal Accounting Computer)

 

Second Generation of computer (1955-1964)

Features of second generation computer:

-          Transistor Memory

-          Power consumption rate decreased

-          Efficiency increased

-          Speed increased

-          High level Language for coding

-          Application Software

-          Memory increased

Transistors replace the Vacuum tubes. The first transistor was invented under leadership of William Shockly (1948), team leader of project. The size of computer and power consumption-rate decreased and efficiency and reliability increased. VDC, OCR and MICR are first time used in this generation. The high level language is developed for software development. FORTAN, ALGOL, COLBOL etc are language of this generation.

 

Third Generation of Computer (1965-1974)

Features of Third generation of computers:

-          IC as Memory

-          Memory high

-          Power Consumption Law

-          Speed more

-          Efficiency More

-          First home computer (PC)

In this generation, IC (Integrated Circuit) replaces transistors. The SSI and MSI (Small Scale Integration and Medium Scale Integration) are main component of CPU. IC contains 1 to 100 components and MSI has 100 to 1000 components. LSI (Large Scale Integration) is also applied which has 1000 to 10,000 components. Components are usually transistors.

The speed, efficiency, durability and reliability increased many times. The concept of cache memory and virtual memory are introduced. The mainframe, minicomputer and microcomputer are developed using LSI technology.

Example : CYBER-175, START-100

 

Fourth Generation of Computer:

VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) is a boon of this generation. It contains more than 10,000 components. VLSI becomes main component of CPU. BASIC, C, C++, JAVA, PROLOG, C# are developed as software coding language. ORACLE, SYBASE is developed for Relationship data Management.

 

Fifth Generation of computer:

Features of fifth generation of computer:

-          Can think and understand

-          Speech in natural language

-          Self-decision capability

-          Very fast execution

-          Very large memory

ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) as CPU components and AI (Artificial Intelligence) are main features of this generation. ULSI has more than million components integrated in single chip. The capability of thinking and self-decision making is equipped with computer. Fifth generation language (After 1990) is an advance high level or very high level language is used in this generation.

The new hardware technologies like bubble memory, josephson juctions, optical disks and optical fibers are needed with it. AI is used to add intelligence to understand natural language.

Example: Clout, Savy Retriever, HAL (Human Access Language) etc.



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