Colors can help to make your web appealing. It expresses feeling of subject. It is a means to express the feeling and imagination. According to Aristotle, all that is visible is color. The color is the proof of Satyam, Shivam, and Sundaram. The colorful butterfly, heart charming flowers, hopping and chirping of birds etc are gift of nature to us.
The life becomes insipid and dull in the lack of colors. A painter creates world of imagination and fills life using several colors. In foreign counties, people colored body, mainly head with different shades of colors. We see many people bleach hair and decorate body-using tattoo. The color has psychological base for all living beings. Male or females of many creatures change color to attract opposite sex in mating seasons. The color concentrates mind and sense of relaxation is felt in brain, a pleasure fleeing and softness swims in us. It arouses emotion and we feel that we are embedding in it, sinking in it, a condition of hypnotism occurs.
The appropriate combination of color, text, and graphics make document effective, influencing and enchanting. In wave designing, understanding of colors is main route of success. Generally, all interpreters or compilers have capability to process colors.
The beauty of world is a combination of different colors in different proportions. The color is nothing but light. If there is no light, no color, only fearful darkness encompasses around us. The darkness is a silence, death and a hole in which all visibility sink and die. The object is only medium to transmit, absorb and reflect light. Example: Rose is only rose in light, it dies in darkness.
In a powerful form of communication, red traffic light is used for stop and green is used for go. Traffic lights send this universal message. The gemology is also based on color concept. Every country has its own color, its own color concepts. In the marketing of product of export quality, the color and logo are designed according to color concept of that country.
The concept of color can be approaches from several disciplines: physiology, psychology, philosophy, science, and art. The color is not defined in any single definition. The definition of color is application- dependent. It may be a medium of expression for artist, but it is only wave and particles for physicist.
Some definitions are craved below:
- Artist: color is an artistic way to the world of human experience, which cannot be described. It is a medium of expression of feeling and behavior of object. It is also a medium to solidify imagination on canvas.
- Physicist: Color is a phenomenon of waves and particles. The original concept and scientific background of color is foundation stone of optics. The reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, dispersion, interference etc are color based physical phenomena.
- Chemist: It is a characteristic of molecules. The compounds of transition elements are colored. The chemistry of paint, glass etc are molecules base.
- Web designer: It is a fastest way of expressing the heart of the subject on which he is working. If you are not artist from heart, you cannot success as web designer. The web designer is magicians which add color magic on the web to mesmerize observers.
- Desktop Publisher: It is a tool for making communicative layouts.
- Marketing Executive: It is powerful tool, which can be used effectively for his make, believe profession.
Origin of Color
Aristotle viewed all color to be the product of a mixture of white and black, and this was prevailing concept before Newton’s experiment on color. It was Sir Isaac Newton who experimented with the colors and the origin of colors in 1966. He concentrated on the nature of spectrum we find in the rainbow for his experiment.
He achieved the same spectrum when he passed a beam of sun light through a glass prism. Newton named these colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Another experiment was carried out by passing a spectrum through glass prism. The output came in the form of white light.
Newton’s color disk has seven colors arranged racially, when disk is rotated in high speed, single white color is observed.
In 19th century, physicist James Clerk Maxwell discovered the fact that mixing just three sources-red, green and blue, can produce wide range of colors. This concept is applied in color monitor to produce different colors.
Color plays a vitally important role in the world in which we live. Color can sway thinking, change actions, and cause reactions. It can irritate or soothe your eyes, raise your blood pressure or suppress your appetite. Different color models are available for different purpose. The computer support RGB color model, printing industries supports CMYK color models etc.
The knowledge of color model is stepping stone for web designers or graphics artists. When used in the right ways, color can save on energy consumption. When used in the wrong ways, color can contribute to global pollution.
(a) RGB Model: Computer creates the color based on RGB model. It produces spectrum of visible light. Monitor can create millions of colors by combining different percentage of three primaries red, green, and blue. RGB colors combine to produce white, these are also called additive colors.
(b) CMYK Model: Opposite model of RGB is a CMY. Printing ink is based on this model. With the full presence of Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow we get black. But practically, in the printing industry it is impossible to create black with these three colors. The result of the mixture of CMY is muddy brown due to the impurities of the printing ink. Hence, black ink is added to get solid black. The outcome of this process CYMK model and K stands for black, which is also recognized as key color. Since black is a full presence of color. The CMYK color model is a subtractive color model. Subtractive color models use reflected light to display color.
Cyan + Yellow = Green
Cyan + Magenta + Blue
Magenta + Yellow = Red
The subtractive (CMY) and additive (RGB) colors are complementary colors. Each pair of subtractive colors produces an additive colors and vice versa.
(c) HSB Model: It stands for Hue, Saturation, and Brightness.
- Hue: is the color reflected from or transmitted through an object. In general sense, hue identifies Red, Green and Blue color.
- Saturation: It is also called chroma. It is a strength or purity of color.
- Brightness: It is the relative lightness or darkness of color.
The measurement of color is known as colorimetry. A variety of instruments are used in this field. The most sophisticated instrument is a spectrophotometer.
Resolution of Images
The resolution of image is measured in pip (pixels per inch) and resolution of output devices are measured in dpi (dots per inch). The graphics of high resolution occupies more space in storage devices and show high quality, but it takes more time in loading.
- Monitor Image: The resolution of an image to be viewed on the monitor should be 72 dpi.
- Printing Industries: The resolution of image for printing purpose should be 300 dpi.
- Optimum quality resolution should be at least 1200 dpi.
Broadcast and Video Standards
There are four types of broadcast and video, and recording standards are available for video recording and displaying. These standards are not interchangeable from one standard to other standards. These are NTSC, PAL, SECAM, and HDTV.
It stands for National Television Standard Committee. The committee has established its standard in 1952.
It stands for Phase Alternate Line.
It is a broadcasting standard of United States, Japan Television, and some other countries have also this standard.
It is broadcasting and display standard of United Kingdom, Europe, South Africa and Other countries.
A single frame of video is made up of 523 horizontal scan line drawn onto the inside face of a phosphor coated picture tube every 11/30th seconds by a fast moving electron beam.
It is an integrated method of adding color to a black-and-white television signal that paints 625 lines at a frame rate of 25 frames per second.
SECAM and HDTV:
It stands for Sequential Color and Memory.
It stands for High Definition television.
It is 625 lines, 50 Hz system format. TV sets sold in Europe utilize dual components and can handles both PAL and SECUM.
It supports 1080 lines by 1920 pixels format. It provides high resolution in 1 16:9 accept ratio. This aspect ratio allows the viewing of cinemascope and Panavision movies.
Chemistry of Color
Colors are not only plant pigments, but also organic chemicals, which are synthesized in the laboratory using various elements.
There are major categories of color:
- Natural color: available in plant. Indigo (blue dye) and alizarin (red dye) are well known natural color. These colors are available in nature in the form of plant Pigment.
- Synthetic dye: manufactured in laboratory using chemicals. The synthetic color contains special type of functional group, which is called chromophore, and a substance with chromophore is called chromogen.
The world is colorful. Color is used to add attractive looks to every substance. Fabric, silk, wool, food stuff, vehicles, utensils, and wall everything is colorful. Our eyes can receive electromagnetic radiation lies in range 400 nm to 750 nm. Chromogen absorbs certain band of wavelengths from the visible radiation and reflects the remainder as colored light. The color of object is nothing but reflected light from chromogen.