Artificial Intelligence





The term ”Artificial Intelligence” is given by a scientist called John McCarthy at MIT in 1956. He had given its definition in 1955 ”making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving”. It is also called machine intelligence.

The best way to judge whether a machine can be labeled intelligent is to use a test first devised by the brilliant British mathematician, Alan Turing (father of AI), called the Turing Test. He stated that a computer would deserve to be called intelligent if it could deceive a human into believing that it was human. The Al is a new concept applied in 5th generation computer to provide facilities of thinking and decision making.

The AI has three broad fields:

(a) Expert System: These are programs designed to emulate the reasoning process of an experienced professional in a particular field (medicine, surgery, osteology, cardiology, orienthology, geology, astrology, sociology, psychology etc) of expertise is called expert system. The first expert system developed in mid-1970 was mycin used to diagnose infectious blood diseases.

(b) Natural language System: English, Hindi, Nepali, Bengali, Urdu etc are natural language. It provides communication between computer and person through natural language.

(c) Robotics: The robots are electromechanical system which is programmed to perform manual task. The science of robots is called robotics.

 

1. Memory

 

The human brain is the complex computer. Many anatomists, philosophers, psychologists and educationists are unable to solve puzzles of memory. The definition and concept of memory are revised time to time. While processing information, the human brain is involved with vital activities such as pattern recognition, learning, thinking and remembering. All these processes occur in the cortex which is the thin layer on the surface of the brain.

Generally, our brain has three main functions:

  • Receiving: Receiving new data from environment through sense organs (eye, ear, nose, tongues, and skin)
  • Processing and storing: Processing of information within brain and storing
  • Retrieving: Recalling information when required.

 

(a) Immediate Memory: The brain retains any objects for 1/10th second. This type of memory is termed as immediate memory.

(b) Short term or working memory: In this memory, information is retained for few minutes. When information is repeated again and again, and stored in long term memory.

(c) Long term memory: The long term memory retains information for long times. If information is not recalled or revised, some parts of information is destroyed.

It is classified into four broad categories:

(i) Specific memory: The practical oriented information is stored for long times. We never forget driving, knitting, cycle riding etc.

(ii)Fear-inspired memory: The fear inspired information has also long life. We never forget dog bite, accidents, burnt by fire etc.

(iii) Episodic memory: The memory related with personal experience is called episodic memory. The marriage day, day of appointment, first day in university, etc are long lasting memory.

(iv) Semantic memory: The memory related with words, grammar, metaphors, and all niceties of language is called semantic memory.

 

2. Epistemology

 

 

The study of knowledge is called epistemology. The knowledge is a defined and structural form of information.

There are many types of knowledge:

(i) Causal Knowledge: Based on cause and effect.

(ii)Procedural Knowledge: The knowledge based on action.

(iii) Declarative Knowledge: Based on statements.

(iv)Tacit Knowledge: Unconscious knowledge.

(v) Deep Knowledge: Based on deep study and understanding of subjects.

(vi) Shallow Knowledge: Superficial and empirical understanding of subject matters.

(vii) Heuristic Knowledge: Problem solving ability.

 

3. Knowledge base

 

 

The knowledge base is a huge collection of facts, rule and procedures related to specific fields. There are many way to express knowledge:

(i) Tree representation: The tree is the representation of knowledge-base. The nodes store knowledge. The root node is the highest node in the hierarchy of knowledge. For example: the flight schedules can be programmed using tree representation.

(ii) Semantic network: It is a graphic representation of knowledge based objects and their relations. The objects are represented by nodes and relations by link.

(iii) Frames: A frame is a method of presentation in a tabular form. The each cell of tabular form is termed as frame. The frame stores knowledge. For instance, time table of school / collages.

(iv) Lists: The list is also a method of knowledge representation. Each list contains details about objects. The programming language is based on this concept.

(v) Predicate logic: The knowledge can be represented in the forms of statements or predicates. The programming language PROLOG supports predicate logic of knowledge representation

 

4. Some Expert system

 

 

There are many expert systems developed for different fields of professions. The first expert system was Mycin, its importance opened market of expert systems.

  • Mycin: developed by Edward Feigenbaum and Edward Shortliffe at Standford University in mid 1970 to diagnose infectious diseases of the blood.
  • HELP: used to diagnose heart disease
  • PUFF: used to diagnose lungs disease
  • DELTA: detect malfunction of diesel engine
  • ELF: used in oil industry
  • PROSPECTOR: used in geology to find out site of minerals in the underground part of the earth
  • EL: used to analyze electric circuit
  • MOLGEN: used to planning DNA elements and genetic science.
  • XCON: used to diagnosis of malfunctioning of computer
  • SOPHIE: computer aided instruction
  • STREAMER: used to teach navel officers.

 

5. Tools for Expert System

 

 

The design of expert system is not very easy task. The experience and knowledge of expert person is converted into software with user friendly interface using programming languages. There are many types of programming languages used for this purpose, but most extensively used as LISP, PROLOG etc.

(a) LISP: This language was developed by John McCarthy, during late 1950. It stands for LIST Processing. It is extensively used in USA for developing expert system. It has simple syntax structure, little data types, and dynamic memory location. The list is written without using comma, only space is provided eg (dove pigeon magpie heron swan). The each element of list can be either an atom or another list. For example: (dove pigeon (crow falcon vulture) magpie heron swan).

  • Quote: This function takes an argument and returns it unaltered.

Example: (quote Apple) or (Apple) returns Apple

 

  • Setq: It is used to assign a value to an atom. It contains two arguments

Example: (setq letters ‘(a b c)) returns (a b c)

(setq first-no 1) returns 1.

 

  • Cdr: used to remove element from list.

Example: (cdr ‘(a b c)) returns (b c)

 

  • Car: It consists of an argument and a non-empty list. It returns as its value the first element from the list.

Example: (car ‘(a b c)) returns a

 

  • Cons: used to add new element in the list.

Example: (cons ’lark’ (pigeon dove) returns ( lark pigeon dove)

  • Append: It used to append new list in the end of existing list.

Example: (setq birds (append birds’ (eagle myna)))

  • Predicate: atom(), zerop(), greaterp() are some predicate functions. The function atom() takes any type of argument and returns T. The function zerop() works with numeric argument and return T if number is 0.Greaterp() function contains list of descending numbers and returns T.

Example:

(ATOM ’9) returns T

(ZERUP 18) returns F

(GREAT ERP ‘(9 8 7 6)) returns T

  • Cond: used to write conditional clauses.

Syntax:

(cond (<condition1><action1>)(<condition2><action2>) . . (<conditionN><actionN>))

 

Example:

>(set a 3)

3

>(setq b 6)

>(cond((a=b) ‘equal) ((<ab)’ b-is largest)(t’ a – is – largest))

B-IS-LARGEST

  • Defun: Used to define user function in LISP.

Example:

(DEFUN function_name ((argument_list) (function body)))

 

(b) PROLOG: It stands for PROgramming in LOGic. This language was invented by Alain Colmerauer and his associates at University of Marseilles in early 1971-1971. Prolog is used in artificial intelligence applications such as natural language interfaces, automated reasoning system and expert systems. A Prolog program consists of facts and rules, and queries (questions). A Prolog program is executed by asking questions. The questions is called query. Facts, rules and queries are called clauses.

Example:

(i) The boy eats apple: This sentence contains two nouns: boy and apple. The verb eat connects (relationship) both the items (nouns). The items are called arguments and relationship is known as predicate. The predicate format: eat (boy, apple)

(ii) Gabbu plays drama: play (gabbu, drama)

AL (Automation Language), ALFA, MAL (Multipurpose Assembly Language), MCL, LAMA (Language for Automatic Machine Assembly), RAIL, (Robot Language), PAL, RAFT, ROBEX, ROL, WAVE etc are AI language. These languages are used in coding intelligence for robots.

 

6. AL and modern Society

 

 

The AL is used in every sectors of life. It is important for industry, amusement (several games), diagnosis of disease (MYCIN, CADULEUS), operation, space research etc. The robotics is also branch of computer science and electronics in which AI is exploited widely.

 

7. Application of AL

 

 

(a) Game: All work and no play, and life would just drag on. MIT student Steve Russel created first interactive game spacebar (1960) based on ASCII characters and in 1970 text based game Adventure was created. The games exploit AI technology.

There are many verities of games:

  • Strategy game
  • Sports game
  • Adventure and exploration game
  • Solitaire and multiplayer Card game
  • Puzzle game
  • Fast action-arcade game
  • Flying simulation versions of classic board games

Chess playing program were developed by researchers like Clude Shannon at MIT and Allen Newell of RAND Corporation.

 

(b) Speech recognition: In mid-sixty, Joseph Weizenbaum developed a program called ELIZA that could carry out human-like conversation with people and pick up speech patterns also. Other computer scientists also initiated by his work and this field of computer science is also furnished. The computer speech reorganization system is fully AI depend system work on the voice and language of users. It allows computers equipped with microphones to interact human speech. Example: United Airlines has used speech reorganization system for flight information and other details.

 

(c) Handwriting recognition: The AL is used to recognize handwriting.

 

(d) Expert system:  The expert system and knowledge engineering, both is main subject of artificial intelligent. An expert system is a computer program designed to operate at the level of an expert in particular field. The expert system is a knowledge based program which permit users heuristic search, solve difficult problem better than human expert, accept advice, modify, update and expands data in a desired order. Expect system communicate with the users in own natural language. The core module of any expert system is its Knowledge-Base (KB). It is a warehouse of the domain-specific knowledge captured from the human expert via the knowledge acquisition modules. CADULEUS, DENDRAL, MYCIN, XCON/ R1 are name of expert systems. DENDRAL is used in chemical industry and research to analysis chemical composition of compounds, MYCIN is used to diagnosis of bacterial disease, and XCON / R1 is used by Digital Corporation for configuring VAX computers.

Bank loan officers use expert systems for guidance in approving and rejecting loan application. Many militaries use expert systems to analyze battlefield conditions and make tactical suggestions. It is also used in automobile repairing, surgery, oil exploration, financial planning, chemical analysis etc.

 

(c) Robotics: AI, engineering, and physiology are the basic disciplines of robotics. The robot is a common term used for machine man, which is used in dirty, dangerous, difficult, repetitive or dull works. The term robot is a Czen word, which meaning is slave. This term is first time coined by science friction writer, Karel Capek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots) written in 1920. The first commercial robot, Unimate, was designed by George Devel and Joe Engeberger (the father of robotics). It has electronic digital brain and performs welding of automobiles. Robots are used in open heart surgery in first time May 7 1998 by French surgeon on six patients at Paris’ Broussais Hospital. Hazbot is developed by NASA’s Jet Population Laboratory to handle dangerous material and firefighting purpose.

The robot has artificial intelligence which makes it a little smarter. To cope with the changing environment, intelligent sensors are to form a part of the robot which can “sense” the environment and supply the necessary data for the “intelligent” control unit. The Robot intelligence is coded in programming languages.

Some robotic programming languages are:

  • AL by Stanford University
  • HELP by DEC
  • LAMA (Language for Automatic Mechanical Assembly) by MIT
  • MH1 (Mechanical Hand 1) by MIT
  • ML (Manipulator Language) by IBM
  • TEACH by JET Propulation Lab in California
  • SRI by Standford’s Research Institute.

 

(f) Neural network: Neural networks or neural net like expert system is termed as neutral network. It is a system of interconnected computing elements for information processing. The original inspiration for this technique was developed on the basic of bioelectrical networks in the brain (100 bioelectrical neurons or brain cells) formed by neuron and their synapses.

Neural Network

Neural Network


The individual elements are commonly referred to as node or neurons or units. It is best for reorganization of handwriting, voice, and stock predication. Neural networks can be implemented on microcomputers and other traditional computer system by using software packages that simulates the activity of a neural network. Specified neural network coprocessor circuit boards for PCs are also available that provides significantly greater processing power. In addition, special-purpose neural microprocessor chip are being used in specific application area such as military weapons systems, image processing and voice reorganization.

Figure illustrates three layers of a number of interconnected nodes:

  • Input layer: It receives input from some set stimuli.
  • Hidden layer: It receives input from the input layer and produces a pattern.
  • Output layer: Produces network responses to the input stimuli patterns.

A neural network can be thought of as a black box that transfers the input vectors v to the output vector CAI where the transformation performed is the result of the patterns of connections and weight.

 

8. Knowledge Engineers

 

 

Knowledge engineer is a professional who works with experts to capture the knowledge (facts and rules of thumb) they possess. The knowledge engineer then builds the knowledge base, using an iterative, prototyping process until the expert system is acceptable. Thus, knowledge engineer performs a role similar to that of system analysts in conventional informational system development.

 

9. Intelligent Agent

 

Intelligent agents are growing in popularity as a way to use artificial intelligence routine in software to help users accomplish many kinds of tasks. An intelligent agent is a software surrogate for an end user or process that fulfills stated needs of activities. Many times, an intelligent agent is given a graphic representation or persona, such as Einstein for science advisor, Sheriock Holmes for an information search agent, and so on. Thus, intelligent agent (also called intelligent assistant or wizards) are special-purpose knowledge based information systems that accomplish specific tasks for users.

 

10. Brain Gate System

 

 

It is a system used to convert mental signal into electrical signal to control artificial organs is called Brain Gate System. Brain Gate is a neural interface communicating between brain and computer. It is boon for person who has lost organs in accident, war, and other measurable happenings. Brain gate system contains sensor which has a chip with 100 electrode sensors. These electrode sensors are thinner than hair and able to detect electrical signals of cells. These signals (neural signals) are sent to processor and output signals are obtained to control artificial organs.

Brain Gate System

Brain Gate System




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