Types of Equilibrium





There are two kinds of chemical equilibrium such as homogeneous equilibrium in which all the reactants and products are in the same phase and heterogeneous equilibrium in which reactants and products are in different phases.

To illustrate the concentration of the reactants and products at equilibrium two examples are given below:

(i) Synthesis of nitric oxide:

The synthesis of NO from N_2 \text{and} O_2 may be given as:

\overset{a}{\underset{a- x} N_2} + \underset{b- x}{\overset{b} O_2} \leftrightharpoons \underset{2x}{\overset{0} 2NO}^{\text{(Initial molar conc.)}}_{(\text{Equilibrium molar conc.)}}

 
Where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are the number of moles/litre of the reactants N_2 \text{and} O_2 initially respectively.

Let x be the degree of dissociation of NO, i. e. , fraction of substance dissociated the equilibrium molar concentration will be (a-x) and (b-x) moles/litre of the N_2 \text{and} O_2 respectively.

 

(ii) Dissociation of NH_3:

The dissociation of NH3 into N2 and H2 may be given as:

Types of chemical equilibrium

 

Where ‘a’ is the concentration of NH_3 in mole per litre initially. Let x be the degree of dissociation of NH_3 , thus at equilibrium the concentration of NH_3 , N_2 \text{and} H_2 becomes (a – x), x/2 and 3x/2 mole/litre respectively.



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