According to Born-Haber Cycle, the formation of an ionic compound from its constituent elements proceeds in a number of steps. For example, the formation of one mole of sodium chloride form sodium and chlorine atoms can be represented as follows:
I = Ionization energy of sodium
S = Heat of sublimation of sodium metal
D = Heat of dissociation of molecular chlorine
E = Electron affinity of chlorine
U = Lattice energy of sodium chloride.
The cycle can be represented as :
The amount of heat liberated in overall reaction is heat of formation of sodium chloride.
then higher the negative value of heat of formation the greater will be the stability of ionic compound produced. By putting the values of S, D, I, E and for NaCl we get,
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